Aquifer - A water-bearing formation or stratum
beneath the earth's surface which transmits water
introduction into water of microorganisms,
from one point to another.
chemicals, wastes, or sewage which renders the
water unfit for its intended use. Usually considered
to imply the presence or possible presence of
Backwash - The reversal of flow through a filter to
disease-producing bacteria. A specific type of
wash clogging material out of the filtering medium
and reduce conditions causing loss of head. Also
called filter wash.
Corrosion - (1) The destruction of a substance,
usually a metal, or its properties because of a
Bacteria - Primitive microscopic plants, generally
reaction with its (environment) surroundings. (2) A
free of pigment, which reproduce by dividing.
complex chemical or electrochemical action in
They do not require light for their life processes.
which metals are converted into metallic ions and
are carried into solutions resulting in damage to
Brackish Water - Water rendered unfit for drinking
pipes, fittings, and other metal components.
because of salty or unpleasant tastes caused by
the presence of excessive amounts of dissolved
Discharge - (1) As applied to a stream, the rate of
flow or volume of water flowing at a given place
within a period of time. (2) The process of water or
Chlorine - A powerful disinfectant used extensively
other liquid passing through an opening or along a
in water treatment. As a gas, its color is
conduit or channel. (3) The water or other liquid
greenish-yellow and it is about 2 1/2 times heavier
which emerges from an opening or passes along a
than air. As a liquid, it is amber and about 1 1/2
conduit or channel.
times heavier than water. It is toxic to all organ-
isms and corrosive to most metals.
Disinfectant - Any oxidant, including but not limited
to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramines, and
Chlorine Demand - The difference between the
ozone added to water in any part of the treatment
amount of chlorine added to water and the amount
or distribution process, that is intended to kill or
of residual chlorine remaining at the end of a
inactivate pathogenic microorganisms.
specified contact period. Chlorine demand may
change with dosage, time, temperature, pH, and
Dissolved Solids - Solids that are present in
Chlorine Residual - The total amount of chlorine
Effluent - (1) A liquid which flows out of a
(combined and free available chlorine) remaining
containing space. (2) Water or other liquid
in water at the end of a specified contact period
partially or completely treated or in its natural
state which flows out from a controlled area, be it
either a reservoir, basin, or treatment operations.
Coagulant - A chemical or material which when
added to water will combine with added or
Filter - A device or structure for removing solid or
naturally present chemicals to form a precipitate,
colloidal matter (which usually cannot be removed
called a floc, which will settle and aid in the
by sedimentation) from water or other liquids or
removal of suspended matter in the liquid.
semiliquids by a straining process whereby the
solids are held on a medium of some kind
Command Surgeon - The brigade surgeon, divi-
(granular, diatomaceous earth, woven, or porous)
sion surgeon, or corps surgeon responsible for
while the liquid passes through.
provision of medical support at the brigade, divi-
sion, or corps concerned.
FreshWater - Freshwater has a TDS concentration
Concentration - A measure of the amount of
of less than 1,500 ppm. Brackish waters are highly
dissolved substances contained per unit volume
mineralized and have a TDS concentration
of solution. May be expressed as grains per
between 1,500 ppm and 15,000 ppm. Saltwaters
gallon, pounds per million gallons, or milligrams
have a TDS concentration greater than 15,000