the passage of the water (solvent) but not the
Gross Beta Particle Activity - The total radio-
dissolved solids (solutes). This process tends to
activity due to beta particle emission as inferred
equalize the conditions on either side of the
from measurements on a dry sample.
pH - A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a
(aquifer) below the surface of the ground. The
solution. A value of seven is neutral; low numbers
term is not applied to water which is percolating or
are acid, large numbers are alkaline. Strictly
held in the top layers of the soil but to that below
speaking, pH is the negative logarithm of the
the water table.
- A characteristic
of water, chiefly due
- The addition
of sewage, industrial
the existence therein of the carbonates and
wastes, or other harmful or objectionable material
sulfates (and occasionally the nitrates and
to water. A general term that does not necessarily
signify the presence of disease-producing
Causes curding of water when soap is used,
increased consumption of soap, deposition of
scale in boilers, injurious effects in some industrial
processes, and sometimes objectionable taste in
Polyelectrolyte - A high molecular weight
the water. Commonly computed from the amounts
(relatively heavy) substance having points of
of calcium and magnesium in the water and
positive or negative electrical charges that is
expressed as equivalent calcium carbonate.
formed by either natural or man-made processes.
Natural polyelectrolytes may be of biological origin
or derived from starch products and cellulose
Hypochlorites - Compounds containing chlorine
derivatives. Man-made polyelectrolytes consist of
that are used for disinfection. They are available
simple substances that have been made into com-
as liquids or solids.
plex, high-molecular-weight substances. Used
with other chemical coagulants to aid in binding
Level, Static - The elevation of water table or
small suspended particles to larger chemical flocs
pressure surface when it is not influenced by
for their removal from water. Often called a
pumping or other form of extraction from the
ground water body. It is the level of ground water
in a well before pumping.
Polymer - A chemical formed by the union of many
monomers (a molecule of low molecular weight).
Microorganism - A minute plant or animal in water
Polymers are used with other chemical coagulants
or on earth that is visible only through a
to aid in binding small suspended particles to
larger chemical flocs for their removal from water.
All polyelectrolytes are polymers, but not all
Milligrams Per Liter - A unit of the concentration of
polymers are polyelectrolytes.
water or wastewater constituent. It has replaced
the parts per million unit, to which it is
Pressure - (1) The total load or force acting upon a
approximately equivalent, in reporting the results
of water analyses.
without qualifications usually means pressure per
unit area (pounds per square inch or kilograms per
Mineral - (1) Any of a class of substances occurring
square centimeter) above local atmospheric
in nature, usually comprising inorganic substances
(such as quartz and feldspar) of definite chemical
Product Water - This water is the product from the
structure, but sometimes also including rocks
water treatment process and is ready to be
formed by these substances as well as certain
consumed (also called finished water).
natural products of organic origin, such as asphalt
and coal. (2) Any substance that is neither animal
Reverse Osmosis - The application of pressure to a
concentrated solution which causes the passage
Organic - (1) Characteristic of, pertaining to, or
of a liquid from the concentrated solution to a
derived from living organisms. (2) Pertaining to a
weaker solution across a semipermeable mem-
class of chemical compounds containing carbon.
brane. The membrane allows the passage of the
solvent (water) but not the dissolved solids
Osmosis - The passage of a liquid from a weak
(solutes). The liquid produced is a demineralized
solution to a more concentrated solution across a
semipermeable membrane. The membrane allows