aircraft engine is designed to burn one particular type and grade of fuel, the consequences of using a mixture
of different fuels can range from small variations in engine performance to total loss of power and engine
failure. The consequences of commingling depend on the physical properties of the fuel.
Sampling and Testing. How often aviation fuels are sampled and tested depends on several factors.
It depends upon whether the fuel is taken from a fuel source, a system or refueler, or an aircraft tank. Fuel
supplies must be tested to confirm their identities (API gravity test) and detect water (Aqua-Glo test) and
particulate contaminant by color comparator ratings. Samples of fuel to be dispensed to aircraft should
contain no more than 10 fibers when a 1-quart sample is visually examined. The aviation fuel contamination
test kit is designed to provide a final check on aviation fuel just before the fueling of an aircraft. It includes
the API gravity test, the Aqua-Glo test, and the Millipore test (a test for particulate contaminants). Fuel in
aircraft tanks must be checked by the aircraft crew before flight operations begin. Taking a preflight sample
is the only way of ensuring that the fuel on board does not contain water or other visible contaminants. Any
fuel that fails a visual check should be segregated and held until laboratory test results are received. To
check a fuel, choose a clean sample bottle, draw a fresh sample, visually inspect it, and test it for debris,
foreign matter, or water. Laboratory testing ensures that the fuel's quality meets specifications, unknown
products and existing or potential contaminating causes are identified, unfavorable field test results are
corroborated, and off-specification fuels are not used.
Communication is the single non-equipment-related item that can enable the FARE site to be a major factor
in the successful mission. This communication is multilevel. Unless otherwise directed, you are responsible
for informing the chain of command of the following:
When the site becomes operational.
When the site is shut down for any reason before the scheduled shutdown time.
Report status of operations and any problems encountered as required by unit policy and procedures.
When the site is shut down as indicated in the operations orders.
PART E - SUPERVISING THE OPERATION OF THE FARE
The FARE system should be primed and ready for operation as soon as it is laid out and the fuel has been
sampled. There should be at least three people in addition to the ATC or pathfinder present during refueling
operations. At least two of these people should hold MOS 77F. The proper procedures for the refueling of
aircraft are as follows:
Land aircraft. Check to see that the armaments aboard the aircraft have been set to SAFE.
Deplane crew and passengers. Only the pilot may remain in the aircraft during refueling. If required, a
crew member may assist with the refueling by manning the fire extinguisher.
Position fire extinguisher on the side of the aircraft by the fill port.
Turn off radios. The pilot may monitor the radio used for air traffic control, but must not transmit while
actual refueling is taking place. The pilot and crew chief may talk by intercom during refueling.
Ground and bound the nozzle to the aircraft. It should never be attached to the radio antenna or to a
Remove dust cap from the nozzle, and remove the plug from the aircraft fill port.
Begin refueling. Be certain to observe the safety precautions associated with closed-circuit or open-port
refueling, as the case may be.
Replace aircraft fill port plug, and replace nozzle caps/plugs.
Remove nozzle bond. Carry the nozzle back to its hanger.
Remove fire extinguisher.
Board crew and passengers.
Direct aircraft to lift-off.
Additionally, you are required to monitor fuel stocks and accountability procedures and render status reports
as required by unit policy. If any leaks or hazardous conditions are found the system must be shut down and
the problem corrected before resuming operations. All spills must be cleaned up and reported as required by
unit policies and procedures and applicable environmental laws. Dispose of contaminated fuel and materials
in an environmentally safe way in accordance with unit policies and procedures and applicable