As a petroleum manager, you will be required to oversee the minor repair of terminal equipment. It is in your
best interest to know the proper procedures and reference material available to you. You will also be
responsible for managing the on-the-job Training (OJT) of newly assigned personnel. The more
knowledgeable you are in the area of equipment repair, the more effective your training program will be. You
will also be responsible for knowledge of the manifold system within the petroleum terminal. Until bulk
petroleum products are issued for consumption from the terminal, they must first be received and stored in
storage facilities of varying capacities. All facilities have a common feature that allows control of the
products entering, leaving and transferring within the system: This control feature is the manifold.
PART A - TYPES OF PIPE AND COUPLINGS
Lightweight Steel Tubing - Lightweight steel tubing is made of light gage steel with API STD 5L pipe
nipples welded to each end. This tubing is furnished in 20-foot sections in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-inch nominal
sizes. Lightweight steel tubing is normally used in long stretches of cross-country pipeline due to greater
ease of handling, and because under this condition it will experience only normal operating pressures.
Due to its thin wall, the pipe is not to be buried nor is it to be used for submerged stream crossings.
API S&D 5L Pipe - API S&D 5L pipe has a thicker wall than the lightweight steel tubing pipe and is
furnished in 4-, 6-, 8-, 12-, 16-, and 20-inch nominal sizes. It is furnished in 20-foot sections grooved for
coupling, and it is beveled for welding in random lengths. It is used at critical points and high pressure
areas such as downhill slopes, manifold areas, and pup joints.
- "Victaulic" couplings are used
to join the lightweight steel tubing and API
5L pipe sections together. "Victaulic" is a trade name associated with the couplings which consist of two
housing segments, two bolts and nuts, and a synthetic-rubber, oil-resistant, self-sealing gasket. The
coupling and gasket are designed so that the pipe joint seals under pressure and vacuum. The coupling
also provides a sufficient amount of angular deflection and slack adjustment for expansion and
contraction of the line between adjacent joints. The gasket used with the coupling should be greased to
prevent pinching or sticking of the gasket.
Aluminum Pipe - Aluminum pipe is a new type of pipe being evaluated for future use by the Army. It is
lightweight, yet meets static and dynamic pressure requirements of the fuel systems. This pipe has
fewer corrosion problems and is available in 9.5-foot sections. It is used in locations similar to the
lightweight steel tubing and API STD 5L pipe. High-pressure situations are corrected by the use of
pressure reduction stations.
Hinged Snap-Joint Coupling The hinged snap-joint coupling is standard for single-grooved aluminum
pipe and has a two-piece integral gasket. The coupling consists of two sections that are hinged together
and a pin for closing the coupling over the pipe ends. The coupling and gasket are designed to seal
under pressure and vacuum. The hinged coupling allows for a 2 percent deflection between joints and a
maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) of 740 psi.
Cutting and Grooving Procedures for Steel Pipe. Grooved pipe is used for coupling pipe
sections together with the split-ring, groove-type coupling. Due to layout or damage, a section of pipeline
must be cut to a nonstandard length and regrooved to allow for proper assembly. A portable cutting,
grooving, and beveling machine is used to perform this task. These machines are packaged in a kit and are
included in the welded pipeline construction tool set. The kit includes two large suitcases and two pipe
stands. The machine is powered by a 250 cubic-foot-per-minute (CFM) air compressor or by a generator and
can also be operated using a 24 volt system from a tactical vehicle. It is used primarily during mainline
pump station construction. It takes about 30 minutes to cut and groove each end of the pipe.
Welding of Pipeline. Pipe to be welded will have a beveled edge on it to facilitate making a good weld.
Rebeveling, because of damage to the edge, or cutting and beveling are accomplished with the machine
described above. The bevel is cleaned of slag with a bevel grinding machine.