diameter of the pipe. To provide free passage for scrapers, changes in pipeline direction are made by
bending pipe rather than using elbow or tee fittings.
Sandtraps are, in effect, sediment or settling chambers which collect dirt, scale, sludge and floating
debris pumped through the pipeline or accumulated during pipeline cleaning. They are installed on the
suction side of each pump station. Sandtraps split the flow into two 14-inch barrels, thus reducing the
velocity of the flow. This allow sediment to settle out. They must be cleaned periodically and after each
PART F - MANIFOLD DESIGN FACTORS
The following factors are affected by the theater support requirements:
Number and quantity of products - The number of and quantity of products depend on theater needs
(for example troops, equipment).
Number of tanks - The number of tanks depends on the quantity and type of product stored and the
facility size (a minimum of two tanks per product is preferred).
Number of incoming lines - The number of incoming lines entering the facility is determined by the
Number of outgoing lines - The number of lines leaving the facility is determined by the locations
Future expansion - Future expansion is based on the expansion of the theater and an increase in
corresponding support requirements.
Location - The location of a facility is given with the manifold centrally located within it.
Layout - The layout requires that the manifold is located at the low point near the center of the tank farm
piping network. The minimum distance to any tank should be 250 feet.
Construction - The manifold consists of API standard pipe sections and plug valves. The API pipe will
accommodate higher pressures associated with the sharp angles and close proximity to the fuel source.
Plug valves provide control in switching products as they require only a 1/4-turn to open or close the
Manifold design - A manifold is designed to support the facility in which it is located. The basic
manifold used in a facility is called a switching manifold which is an assembly of pipe, fittings, and valves
used for controlling the flow of petroleum products into, out of, and within, a tank farm complex. The
manifold is located at the lowest point within the facility to assure positive suction to the transfer/feeder
pumps. The manifold connects a number of tanks with incoming and outgoing lines as well as pumps
used in transferring products. A single tank connected to a pipeline does not provide the flexibility to
accomplish more than a single function. Multiple tanks connected to a pipeline, even while providing
increased capacity, can only perform a single function. The manifold system permits simultaneous
receipt and delivery of petroleum products by the facility. By adding pipe, fittings, and valves, control of
the product to complete multiple tasks can be accomplished. Products can be received into one tank
while issues can continue simultaneously.
Manifold identification markings - An identification system is essential for control within a facility. The
facility commander will establish the identification system where one is not established or if a current
system needs changing. Identification systems should be kept simple. The system should identify each
tank, pump, line, and valve. A schematic of the facility tanks, pumps, lines, and valves identifying each
needs to be available within the facility for reference. Schematic and facility markings are suggested as
a method for identification of the system. Whatever method is utilized, the actual facility schematic must
match what is actually in place. The following identification method is suggested:
Valves - Valves located along the main line (ML) are identified by the office of the chief dispatcher,
starting at the beginning of the pipeline and ending outside the last facility of the head terminal.
These valves are identified by the letter ML followed by a dash (-) and a number. For example: ML-
1, denotes a valve as being the first in the pipeline system.
- Tanks are identified
by numbers. When numbering the tank valves, start with the first valve
the tank and number across the manifold in sequence. Write the tank number down first, followed by
a dash, and then the valve number. For example, if identifying Tank 10, all valves starting from the
tank would be numbered sequentially beginning with 10-1, then 10-2, then 10-3, and so on to the last
valve in the manifold for that particular line.
- Pumps are identified
by numbers. Pump valves may
be identified with
system. For example, pump 1 can have its suction and discharge valves identified individually or in