Fuel supply personnel are responsible for all aspects of fuel supply
operations. One of the most complex, challenging and interesting aspects of
excellent opportunity to use those theories and principles in the classroom.
A broad base understanding of pipeline distribution system will enhance your
professional career because the possibility of conventional or limited
large quantities of fuel. Currently there is no better state of the art
bulk delivery than by pipeline.
PART A - STATIC FLUID (FLOW OF FUEL IN PIPELINES)
The specific (or unit) weight of water is 62.3 pounds per
Specific gravity. The ratio of the weight of a volume of liquid to an equal
volume of water. The specific gravity of water is 1.
API gravity. API gravity is an arbitrary scale accepted for general use by
and produces a range of numbers between 10 and 90 API between the heaviest
and the lightest petroleum products. The standard (water) is established at
60, F. All other observations must be converted to this standard to make
Conversion formulas. The following formulas are used for conversion between
API gravity and specific gravity.
API = 141.5 - 131.5
SPGR = 141.5
API + 131.5
PART B - PRESSURE
Pressure. All forces which produce pipeline flow velocity and all those
that oppose it can be described or measured in terms of pressure or feet of
Static pressure. Static pressure is a measure of liquids at rest. It is the
vertical height from a given point in a column or body of still liquid to
its surface and is usually expressed in feet.
Example: A column of water
(at 60, F) 1 inch by 1 inch, 2.31 feet in
height will exert one pound
per square inch at its base. Then we can
express this as: 2.31 feet
of head is equal to one pound of pressure.
If 2.31 feet of head is one
PSI then one feet of head is .433 PSI (1 ƒ
2.31 = .433).
Dynamic Pressure: Dynamic pressure is a measure of potential energy or