Fuel supply personnel are responsible for all aspects of fuel supply

operations. One of the most complex, challenging and interesting aspects of

petroleum operations is the study of hydraulics. Pipeline design offers an

excellent opportunity to use those theories and principles in the classroom.

A broad base understanding of pipeline distribution system will enhance your

professional career because the possibility of conventional or limited

nuclear warfare at any location in the world will result in demands for

large quantities of fuel. Currently there is no better state of the art

bulk delivery than by pipeline.

The specific (or unit) weight of water is 62.3 pounds per

cubic foot.

volume of water. The specific gravity of water is 1.

the petroleum industry. It is based on reciprocals of specific gravities

and produces a range of numbers between 10 and 90 API between the heaviest

and the lightest petroleum products. The standard (water) is established at

60, F. All other observations must be converted to this standard to make

meaningful comparisons.

API gravity and specific gravity.

API = 141.5 - 131.5

SPGR

SPGR = 141.5

API + 131.5

that oppose it can be described or measured in terms of pressure or feet of

head.

vertical height from a given point in a column or body of still liquid to

its surface and is usually expressed in feet.

(at 60, F) 1 inch by 1 inch, 2.31 feet in

height will exert one pound

per square inch at its base. Then we can

express this as: 2.31 feet

of head is equal to one pound of pressure.

If 2.31 feet of head is one

PSI then one feet of head is .433 PSI (1 ƒ

2.31 = .433).

12-6

QM 5099

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