5988-E is annotated with any faults or deficiencies found. The completed
DA Form 2404 or DA Form 5988-E is returned to the motor pool with the
PART F - SAFETY
Switch fueling means supplying an aircraft with fuel
that has flammability characteristics different from that which is
already in the tank. The flammability characteristics of the mixed fuel
will be different from the two fuels involved. The danger is that if a
spark should occur in the tank, the vapor-air mixture above the fuel may
be in the flammable range and an explosion could result. If an aircraft
is to be switch fueled, the rate of flow at the nozzle should not exceed
50 percent of the rated flow. Changing to JP-4 after using a kerosene-
grade fuel also constitutes switch fueling.
Aircraft, vehicles, and engine powered equipment generate heat by
burning fuel. They also generate static electricity because of friction
between moving parts. The engine heat of an idling aircraft turbine
engine is in the auto-ignition range of JP-4. Poorly maintained vehicle
engines may backfire or discharge sparks. Do not allow any work to be
done on an aircraft's batteries while the aircraft is being refueled.
Aircraft radios may operate to receive messages during refueling, but
radio transmissions from the aircraft are not allowed because of the
danger from arcing. Do not use flashlights within 50 feet of the
refueling operation unless they are approved explosion-proof type. Do
not allow electric handtools to be used in the refueling area. The
maintained in top condition to prevent short circuits around defects.
flammable vapor-air mixture.
The danger of an open flame is that it will ignite fuel or
a flammable vapor-air mixture.
Do not allow any type of open flame, or
any flame-producing device within 50 feet of an aircraft refueling
Static Electricity. There are two ways to prevent static electricity from
sparking. The charges on different materials can be equalized by
connecting them with a conductor (bonding). Also, a way can be provided
for the charges to dissipate harmlessly (grounding). The Army uses both
Bonding is the process through which two conductive objects are connected
static electricity. It equalizes the charges on two unlike objects (an
aircraft and a refueling nozzle) in order to preclude arcing as the two
objects are joined. A nozzle-to-aircraft bond is required. This bond is
made before the nozzle dust cap or fuel tank cap is removed. Likewise,
do not disconnect the bond until refueling is complete and the fuel tank
cap and nozzle dust cap are replaced.
Grounding is the process that provides a conductive path into the
ground so that a static charge is not trapped on the surface of the
equipment where it can discharge as a spark. This conductive path is