pencil, two colors can be used to mark off each set of measurements and the distances measured at the
end of the test with the analyzer section lying horizontally on the bench top. If the boundaries have been
marked off with index clips, record the measurements.
Erroneous results can be caused by improper packing of the gel or incomplete elution of hydrocarbons
by the alcohol. With precision bore columns, incomplete elution can be detected from the total length of
the several zones, which must be at least 500 mm for a satisfactory analysis. With standard wall tubing,
this criterion of total sample length is not strictly applicable because the inside diameter of the analyzer
section is not the same in all columns.
For samples containing substantial amounts of material boiling above 240C, the use of isoamyl alcohol
instead of isopropyl alcohol may improve elution.
Release the gas pressure and disconnect the column. To remove used gel from the precision bore
column, invert it above the sink and insert a long piece of No. 19-gage hypodermic tubing with a 45
angle tip through the wide end. By means of 6-mm outside diameter copper tubing at the opposite end
for attaching a rubber tube, connect to a water tap and flush with a rapid stream of water. Rinse with
residue-free acetone and dry by evacuation.
Calculation and reporting procedures. For each set of observations calculate the hydrocarbon
types to the nearest 0.1 volume % as follows:
% volume = ( Lo / L) x 100 (2)
Saturates, % volume = ( Ls / L) x 100 (3)
La = length of the aromatic zone, mm
Lo = length of the olefin zone, mm
Ls = length of the saturate zone, mm and
L = sum of La + Lo + Ls
Average the respective calculated values for each type. If necessary, adjust the result for the largest
component so that the sum of the components is 100%. The above results can be corrected to a total
sample basis as follows:
C = C x 100 - B / 100
C = concentration of hydrocarbon type (% volume) on a total sample basis.
C = concentration of hydrocarbon type (% volume) on an oxygenate-free basis.
B = concentration of total oxygenate blending components (% volume) in sample.
Report the averaged value for each hydrocarbon type to the nearest 0.1 volume % and the total volume %
oxygenates in the sample as calculated.
PART E - D-1322 STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR SMOKE POINT OF
KEROSENE AND AVIATION TURBINE FUEL
Requirements and Warnings.
Toluene Warning - Flammable. Vapor harmful. Keep away from heat, sparks, and open flame. Keep
container closed. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid breathing of vapor or spray mist. Avoid
prolonged or repeated skin contact.
Trimethylpentane Warning - Extremely Flammable. Harmful if inhaled. Vapor may cause flash fire.
Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame. Keep container closed. Use with adequate ventilation.
Avoid build-up of vapors and eliminate all sources of ignition, especially nonexplosion-proof electrical
apparatus and heaters. Avoid breathing of vapor or spray mist. Avoid prolonged or repeated skin
Methanol Warning - Flammable. Vapor harmful. May be fatal or cause blindness if swallowed or
inhaled. Cannot be made nonpoisonous. Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame. Keep container
closed. Avoid contact with eyes and skin. Avoid breathing of vapor or spray mist. Use with adequate
ventilation. Do not take internally.
Heptane Warning - Extremely flammable. Harmful if inhaled. Vapor may cause flash fire. Keep away
from heat, sparks, and open flame. Keep container closed. Use with adequate ventilation. Avoid build-