Section II. Terms
general formula of naphthenes and the chain
American Petroleum Institute (API) The institute
structures of paraffin, but they are unsaturated.
represents and is supported by the petroleum
Molecular structure and nomenclature
industry. It standardizes the tools and equipment
correspond to paraffin having the same amount
used by the industry and promotes the
of carbon. Ethylene, or ethene, is the lowest,
advancement of research in the petroleum field.
member of the olefins, and the series is
sometimes called the ethylene series.
American Society for Testing and Materials
(ASTM) A national scientific technical organization
formed for the development of standards or
characteristics performance of materials, products,
systems, and services and the promotion of
API Gravity An arbitrary scale expressing the gravity
or density of liquid petroleum products. The
measuring scale is calibrated in terms of degrees
API. The gravity of any petroleum product is
corrected to 60F (16C).
bitumen A mixture of hydrocarbons of natural or
pyrogenous origin, or both, which are frequently
accompanied by their nonmetallic derivatives and
which are completely soluble in carbon disulfide.
instrument. The determination of accuracy of
graduation in a measuring instrument.
centrifugal pump An apparatus that builds up
pressure head using centrifugal force as the
principal means and angular velocity as the
density Specific weight or mass of a substance per
unit volume (pounds per cubic foot or gallon or
grams per cubic centimeter). Specific gravity is the
ratio of the mass of any volume of a substance to
the mass of an equal volume of some standard
substance (water in the case of liquids and
hydrogen or air in the case of gases) at 40'C
flash point The lowest temperature at which a liquid
petroleum product gives off vapor in sufficient
concentration to ignite (that is, flash) on application
of a flame under specified conditions.
identification tests Selected tests applied to a
sample to identify quickly the type or grade of
material represented or to determine that the
quality has not been altered by time or handling.
olefin One of a major series of hydrocarbons that
appear chiefly in refinery operations. They have