causing the proteins to coagulate. This is done by the introduction of selected bacteria or rennet,
an enzyme, into the milk. The curds are then drained, processed and cured or aged in a variety of
ways. Cheese is composed of three major components: water, fat, and protein. The protein in
cheese is derived from the milk solids. All cheeses are high in protein.
a. Unripened cheese. They are soft, white freshly made cheeses. These include cottage,
baker's, ricotta, cream, neufchatel and mozzarella.
b. Semi-soft. They are more developed than unripened, but still have a generally buttery
texture. These include fontina, bel paise, munster and brick.
c. Soft-ripened. They are ripened from the outside toward the center. These include brie,
camembert, leiderkranz and both double and triple creme cheese.
d. Hardened ripen. They are cured cheeses that have a firm texture. These include cheddar,
Colby, Monterey Jack, domestic Swiss, Gruyere and Carlsburg cheese.
e. Blue veined. They owe their flavor and appearance to the blue and green mold, which is
variegated throughout the cheese. These include Roquefort, Stilton, Gorgonzola and blue.
f. Hard grating. They owe their flavor to a long aging period, as high as two years. These
include Parmesan and romanos, which are often sold already grated.
g. Goat. They are made from goat's milk and are produced in a variety of forms in France
called Chevre. Fresh, unaged chevre is the most popular, having a mild flavor, and a very white
color, with a dry texture.
Sugar. There are different types of sugars you will become familiar with in cooking. Their
main functions are to sweeten, tenderize, and improve the quality of foods being cooked or
a. Brown sugar.
b. Granulated sugar.
c. Powdered sugar.
Leavening agents. There are 5 different agents that act as leavening agents.
a. Baking soda.
b. Baking powder.
c. Tartrate powder.