d. Cleanup must be IAW EPA regulations. Methods include:
(1) Skimmers and skimmer boats: Pick up the oil on adsorbent belt, oil is squeezed into a container.
(2) Sorbents: Designed to pick up petroleum products only.
(3) Chemical cleanup: If used, must obtain prior approval from EPA.
(b) Gelling, sinking agents
(c) Microbiological organisms: Actually eat petroleum products
Disposal of waste must be IAW EPA requirements.
a. If the product contains lead, the waste must be disposed of through high-intensity burning. Using a
closed incinerator, emissions are minimal and resultant ash is small.
b. If the product is unleaded, the waste can be disposed of through:
(1) High-intensity burning (usually the best method)
(2) Landfills (expensive to haul and store)
(3) Farming (contractor turns sludge into specially lined area, adds microbiological organisms to
expedite the process)
(4) On-site bioremediation (microbiological organisms are introduced to contaminated area, soil is
periodically turned and monitored for recovery)
Environmental Impact of Spills.
a. The Valdez (1989) tape, produced by the Cousteau Society, provides an overview of the impact of the
largest spill to occur in the United States' waters (11 million gallons). It discusses cleanup techniques and
weaknesses and gives excellent footage of fouled shorelines and cleanup.