Fire Swatters - The fire swatter, or flapper, is used to beat the flames out. It may be effective on small
fires, but it could cause a fire to spread due to flying embers.
Clothing. When faced with fighting a brush fire, nothing is more important to success than having the proper
equipment. An integral part of fire fighting equipment is clothing. It is your responsibility to ensure that there is
adequate clothing on hand for any type of fire fighting situation that may arise. The type of clothing required
varies in relation to your mission and the type of fires that may occur. When planning operations, as well as
ensuring base-unit readiness, you must always consider the availability of the proper fire fighting clothing.
As a senior NCO, you should ensure that personnel are thoroughly familiar with the
following techniques for fighting a ground cover fire:
Always know the current escape routes.
Safety may be gained by moving into the burned area (as a last resort only).
Always work a fire on a slope from below.
Always work downwind of a fast-moving fire.
Use caution in felling or cutting trees.
Pace yourself; ground cover fires usually require long periods of hard work.
Stay with your crew.
When working on the fire line, stay 10-15 feet from the nearest co-worker.
Post a lookout to watch for a change in the fire's behavior.
Work as a crew; this is not a contest to see who can cut the most line.
If you find yourself surrounded by fire, dig a pit and cover yourself with dirt.
PART G GENERAL PETROLEUM HEALTH HAZARDS
Dusts. Dust results from the grinding, scraping, sanding, or sandblasting of tanks, especially in the case of
tanks that have held leaded fuels. Lead dust can also result from burning sludge taken from leaded gasoline
storage tanks. Lead, manganese, mercury, arsenic, and any compound made of these items can produce
dust that is poisonous to the body. Silica dust resulting from the operation of grinding and polishing
machines or sanding and sandblasting operations can be fibrous-producing, causing injury to the lungs.
Nuisance dusts may cause inflammation and respiratory ailments.
Gases and Vapors. The terms "gas" and "vapor" are often used to mean the same thing, although there
is a difference. A gas exists as a gas at ordinary temperature and pressure. A vapor is a gas-like form of a
substance that is ordinarily a liquid. Gasses and vapors are divided into four groups. Poisonous or toxic
gasses and vapors have various effects on the body. They may injure or destroy the visceral organs, the
blood-forming system, tissues, or bones. Examples of poisonous gasses or vapors are hydrogen sulfide
found in crude oil of high sulfur content and tetraethyl lead vapor from leaded gasoline. You must avoid
exposure to them at all times. Simple asphyxiates are gasses and vapors that keep the lungs from getting
air. In other words, they replace oxygen that is in the air. Anesthetic gasses and vapors have a narcotic
effect, depressing the central nervous system to the point where respiratory failure may occur. All
hydrocarbon vapors have this effect. Irritant gasses and vapors inflame the lungs and respiratory tract.
They may cause pneumonia and other pulmonary diseases or make the victim more susceptible to them.
Most flammable gasses and vapors are irritants whether or not they are poisonous or narcotic.
PART H - FIRST AID FOR SITUATIONS INVOLVING PETROLEUM
When personnel swallow petroleum products, assisting personnel should:
Keep the victim calm, if possible.
DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.
Get the victim to medical help immediately.