(b) Petroleum products will be shipped overseas to ports, harbors, and beachheads in
large tankers. The fuel will be pumped ashore by the use of a marine dock facility, a submarine
(underwater) pipeline, a floating pipeline, or by lightening the tanker by the use of large flat bottom
barges. Ashore, the products will be at major marine-terminal storage facilities constructed to offer as
unprofitable a target as possible, to ensure the products' security. To meet these requirements, the
facility may consist of an existing commercial marine terminal, portable bolted steel storage tanks, or
collapsible fabric storage tanks. Obviously, these are not the only solutions to bulk storage problems in
(c) From the marine-terminal storage facility, fuel will be pumped forward through
pipelines to large intermediate or head terminal tank farms. In forward areas one may find collapsible
drums, collapsible tanks, flexible hose line systems, large capacity cross-country mobile dispensing
vehicles as well as tank trucks, trailers, and pods.
Concepts of Warfare.
(a) Conventional warfare will employ pipelines in much the same way as they were
during World War II and the Korean War. Although equipment and technology change, the concept
does not change. Employment, however, will require increased quantities of fuel and a pipeline system
capable of quick deployment and emplacement.
(b) Limited nuclear warfare will modify the use of the military petroleum pipeline
system. More reliance will be made upon dispersed storage collapsible fabric storage tanks rather than
in highly vulnerable aboveground fixed facilities. Also, the use of flexible hose line systems is expected
to increase during limited nuclear warfare.
(c) Unlimited nuclear warfare will place the greatest emphasis on stabilizing an area and
capitalizing on the existing facilities, which will be used depending on their state of repair. All in all,
the bulk supply concept will still need to be performed.
Pipeline System Concepts.
(a) When classified according to use, pipeline systems fall into three general types:
assault, tactical, and logistical.
(1) An assault system is generally a temporary system, which can be quickly
installed to provide petroleum products in rapidly moving combat situations.
(2) A tactical system is one that can be rapidly constructed or relocated in order to
provide sufficient fuel to a larger area or scope of operations.
(3) A logistical system is a more permanent pipeline designed to provide large
quantities of fuel to stabilized areas.
(b) When classified according to construction, pipeline systems also fall into three
general types: hoseline, coupled, and welded. All three methods of construction may be found in a
military bulk distribution system. Usually, these construction types parallel the use classifications.
(1) Hose line systems are constructed of collapsible hose mounted for rapid
placement as a temporary extension of lateral from a more permanent location. The pumping units are
portable with relatively low flow rates and pressures.