1 cubic foot over 7.48 gallons, you can cancel out the gallons measurements in the numerator and
denominator, and you are left with 1 cubic foot over minutes multiplied by times 7.48.
(e) For the minutes to seconds conversion, simply multiply the fraction by 1 minute over 60
seconds. This will cancel out the minutes in the equation. You now are left with a unit of measurement
of cubic feet over seconds, just what you were supposed to convert to. The rest is just a math problem.
Along with the factors, you have 1 multiplied by 1 in the numerator and 7.48 multiplied by 60 in the
That equals 1 over 448.8 or 0.002228, which is the conversion factor found in FM 10-67-1. Figure 1-1
illustrates how to accomplish this action.
Figure 1-1. Finding Conversion Factors
c. Velocity. Velocity, like flow rate, uses one unit of measurement over another. While flow rate
measures volume of liquid over time, velocity measures distance traveled over time. More simply
stated, it is a measure of speed. The common abbreviation for velocity is "V."
(1) Distance is commonly measured in miles, feet, and inches. However, it can also be
measured in metric measurements. Since the denominator in velocities (hours, seconds, etc.) is the same
as for flow rates, common velocities we use in the petroleum field are: miles per hour and feet per
(2) Since there are no conversion factors for velocity listed in FM 10-67-1, we must convert all
velocities by hand using the same process we used to convert flow rates.
(a) In this instance, the required conversion is from miles per hour to feet per second. As
with the conversion for flow rates, both numerators are in the same type of measurement (distance) and
both denominators are measured in time.
(b) To convert from miles to feet, multiply by 5,280 feet over 1 mile. This allows
elimination of the miles and leaves you with 5,280 multiplied by feet over hour multiplied by one.
(c) Converting from hours to seconds can be done one of two ways: first, if you know
that 1 hour equals 3,600 seconds, then you can multiply by 1 hour over 3,600 seconds to eliminate hours
from the equation. In this example, we use the second method, first breaking hours down into 60
minutes and then breaking minutes down into 60 seconds.