(2) Hot, tropical. In tropical regions, water sources are expected to be abundant. Rivers,
streams, lakes, ponds, wells, and local water systems are possible water sources. Dense vegetation and
poor road networks may inhibit water distribution by truck and place greater reliance on aerial
operations. The presence of waterborne diseases and parasites requires disinfecting and filtration prior
to use for bathing and laundry. Individual needs for water will increase due to higher temperatures and
humidity. Cool, aerated drinking water will encourage soldiers to drink more water, thus minimizing
(3) Hot, arid. In arid regions, water sources are very limited and widely dispersed.
Detailed planning for water supply in an arid region is essential. Major tactical operations may be aimed
at controlling scarce water sources. Surface fresh water is almost nonexistent and the availability of
ground water varies widely. The lack of water sources necessitates an extensive storage and distribution
system. Individual water needs will be significantly greater. Troops must be encouraged to increase
consumption to prevent heat casualties. Commanders and supervisors must ensure that cool drinking
water is available and that soldiers drink sufficient quantities to maintain combat effectiveness.
(4) Cold. In arctic regions, the dominant water source is unfrozen water below frozen
rivers and lakes. Melted snow and ice will provide enough water only for emergency use. Water
purification, storage, and distribution elements must be augmented with equipment to prevent or retard
freezing. Water production is reduced when operating in temperatures of less than 50F due to slowed
chemical reaction times.
e. The following is a list of water equipment and a brief description of each that may be found in
some of the various water units.
(1) Reverse osmosis water purification units. ROWPUs produce water from fresh and salt
water sources. They come in two sizes, 600-GPH and 3,000-GPH. The 600-GPH ROWPU will
eventually be replaced by the 1,500-GPH ROWPU on a two-for-one basis.
(2) Semitrailer mounted fabric tanks. The SMFT is a collapsible tank designed to transport
drinking water. The SMFTs come in two sizes, 3,000 ad 5,000 (4,570 actual) gallons. The SMFT is
used for line-haul only There are no baffles in the tank so partial loads cannot be hauled. The SMFT can
be used to set up dry water points. A dry water point is a site at which potable water is issued but is not
(3) Forward area water point supply system. The FAWPSS, a system of six 500-gallon
drums, provides aerial delivery of water to isolated units. The drums can also be transported by various
(4) Tactical water distribution system. The TWDS is a 6-inch collapsible hose line system
which is capable of pumping water up to ten miles. Each system includes 10 miles of hose line, six 600-
GPM pumps, two 20,000-gallon collapsible tanks and all the components to