4. Milk. Different types of milk are widely used ingredients in cooking and baking. Whether
acting as a primary or secondary component in a dish, they contribute in many ways to the
character of the finished products. It can be purchased in many forms, all of which are various
forms of fresh whole milk after processing.
a. Fresh whole milk. Fresh whole milk is what the cow gives naturally. To be termed fresh
whole milk the most that can be added to it is Vitamin D. Nothing can be taken away. This is
one of the many truly nutritious and wholesome natural products available.
b. Pasteurization and Homogenization. They are processes commonly used in milk
production. Pasteurized milk has been heated to kill most bacteria present and then cooled.
Most commercial milk and cream products are pasteurized. Homogenized milk is forced through
a series of extremely small holes. This separates the fat particles into such small pieces they will
remain suspended in the milk or cream.
c. Raw milk. This type of milk is rarely used in commercial kitchens. Produced by herds
of dairy cattle certified to be disease-free and kept under strict sanitary conditions, this milk may
be sold either raw or pasteurized.
d. Fortified milk. Commonly these have vitamins A and/or D and possibly, extra non-fat
milk solids added to them. Other vitamins may be added to the milk, but all additions must be
listed on the label.
e. Skim/Nonfat milk. It contains less than 0.5 percent fat. Skim and Lowfat milk cannot be
considered an equal to whole milk.
f. Cream. Cream is a form of milk. The fat globules are more concentrated in it than
whole milk. It is not uncommon in institutional cooking to use whole milk, in place of cream.
When this is done there must be an addition of a thickening agent to replace the body that the
cream would have given the dish. Cream is less likely to form a skin when heated or boiled and
far more stable than milk in cooked sauces and soups.
g. Buttermilk. A fresh liquid milk (whole, lowfat, or 1 percent) cultured by the addition of
bacteria. It has a rich, thick texture, and a tangy acid taste. Buttermilk can be used in recipes
calling for soured milk.
h. Condensed milk. Made from whole milk with 60 percent of the water removed. The
reduced milk is heavily sweetened with sugar and must contain a minimum of 8.5 percent
butterfat. Condensed milk cannot replace other milk products unless the sugar content of the
recipe is adjusted.
i. Dried milks. These milks have all moisture removed, creating a powder. They are
available as either dried whole milk made from whole milk, or dried non-fat milk made from
skim milk. The original type of dried milk is called regular.
Cheese. Cheese is a food produced by separating milk solids from whey by curdling,