(4) Thawing and Tempering Frozen Meat. Recipes in TM 10-412 are for thawed or
tempered meat unless otherwise indicated. Thawing means to raise, under controlled conditions,
the internal temperature of frozen meat to a level above 30 degrees Fahrenheit. Tempering
means to raise, under controlled conditions, the internal temperature of frozen meat to about 26
28 degrees Fahrenheit. This temperature range allows you to separate and handle frozen meat.
Thaw or temper meat before cooking it to shorten the cooking time and to improve the quality of
the finished product. Keep meat covered while thawing or tempering, and make sure there is
ample room between the frozen pieces to permit good air circulation. Meat should be thawed in
a manner that does not permit cross-contamination. Do not thaw or temper meat at room
temperature. DO NOT refreeze thawed or tempered meat.
c. Cooking Meat by Dry Heat.
(1) Dry-heat cooking is achieved when the product is cooked without the addition of an
outside liquid. Methods of dry heat cooking are described in this paragraph. Roasting and
Baking both refer to cooking by dry heat in an oven. The meat is usually uncovered in roasting.
The meat may be either covered or uncovered in baking. The term used in specific cases
depends on the type of meat being cooked. For example, the term "baked" is used with meatloaf,
Salisbury steak, and ham (smoked and nonsmoked). The term "roasting" is used with most
nonsmoked meats cooked in the oven by dry heat.
(2) For roasting, place the roast fat-side up so that the fat will baste the meat as it cooks.
If possible, cook roasts or hams that are about the same size so that all of them will finish
cooking at the same time.
(3) Insert a meat thermometer into the thickest part of a roast. When it is necessary to
cook roasts or hams of varying sizes at the same time, insert the thermometer in the thickest part
of the smallest roast. Keep the thermometer probe away from fat pockets and bone. Either may
cause an incorrect reading. When the thermometer registers the desired temperature (rare,
medium, or well-done), remove the smallest roast to prevent overcooking. Then insert the
thermometer in the thickest part of the smallest roast remaining in the oven. Repeat this
procedure until all of the roasts are done.
(4) Remove roasts from the oven 20 minutes before serving so that the meat can firm up
before it is carved or sliced.
d. Grilling. Grilling can be accomplished on a grill, on a range, or in a tilting fry pan. The
grill should be heated to the temperature prescribed in TM 10-412 for the product being
prepared. The temperature is checked by use of a grill thermometer. Drain excess grease and
other accumulations frequently for best product results.
e. Deep-Fat Frying. Meat that is to be deep fat fried is coated with batter or some kind of
breading material. It is then cooked in fat heated to a temperature of between 350 degrees
Fahrenheit and 360 degrees. Some meat items, such as breaded veal steaks or cutlets and
breaded pork chops, are browned in deep fat, drained, and then placed in an oven to finish