in dishes such as chili and macaroni, macaroni and cheese, or macaroni salad. Noodles are used
in beef noodles, chow mein, noodles Jefferson, and lasagna. Spaghetti and meatballs or meat
sauce are a standard, yet dishes such as Yakisobo provide a highly acceptable alternative. Some
rules for cooking and serving pasta products are as follows: Cook as close to serving time as
possible; slowly add pasta to boiling water to which salt and oil have already been added, and stir
constantly until the water begins to boil again; stir the pasta occasionally; cook the pasta only
until tender. Test frequently for doneness by pressing a piece against the side of the pot. If it
breaks evenly and clearly, then the pasta is done. Rinse the pasta in cold water. (Rinsing is not
necessary if you serve macaroni or spaghetti immediately with a sauce or butter.) To reheat the
pasta before serving, place the desired quantity in a wire basket. Lower the basket into boiling
water for two to three minutes. Drain well, and place in a greased steam table insert.
(2) Dressings. Serve dressings as an accompaniment to poultry, meats, and fish. Bake
dressings in a roasting pan in a moderate oven. Do not stuff the cavity of poultry. Dressing
should be moist but never soggy. NOTE: To prevent sogginess, never use hot stock.
(a) Poultry stuffing's (dressings), stuffed meats, and stuffing's containing meat
must be cooked immediately after preparation to heat all parts of the food to at least 165 degrees
Fahrenheit with no interruption of the cooking process. All such products should be cooked
(b) The two basic types of dressings prepared in Army dining facilities are corn
bread dressing and savory bread dressing. Guidance on how to prepare these products is
provided in TM 10-412, Section O.
p. Fruits and Vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of fiber and provide a
large part of the vitamins and minerals needed in a well-balanced diet. Therefore, they should be
prepared so that they retain maximum nutritive value. Fruits and vegetables may be eaten raw,
but they are often cooked to improve digestibility, palatability, and acceptability.
(1) Fruits. Fruits of all kinds are excellent for salads or desserts and should be served
fresh at every meal in the dining facility. Fruits are purchased canned, frozen, and dehydrated
for use as toppings and fillings and in gelatins. Fruits are a large part of the breakfast fitness bar.
When certain fresh fruits are out of season, canned or frozen fruits can be served for variety.
Water-packed or unsweetened fruits should be offered when possible.
(2) Vegetables. Vegetables are purchased fresh, frozen, canned, and dehydrated for
use in dining facilities. Various methods of serving can be used. Some of the most popular
variations on vegetables include au gratin, scalloped, glazed, stuffed, and deep fat fried
(3) Cleaning. Thoroughly clean all fresh fruits and vegetables before using them.
Trim vegetables, and remove all undesirable leaves and coarse stems. Wash usable leaves
several times to remove sand and grit. Wash greens in a sink with enough cool water to cover
the vegetables. If greens have insects, add 1 tablespoon of salt per gallon of water. Wash the
vegetables by lifting in an up-and-down motion. Since some minerals and vitamins in fresh