d. Phosphate powder.
8. Fats and Oils. The difference between fats and oils is that fats are solid at room temperature
and oils are liquid at room temperature. The most common varieties are:
d. Vegetable shortening
Starches. There are various types of starches.
10. Herbs and Spices. Can be purchased either fresh or dried. They add flavor and can give
attractiveness to the product.
a. Herbs. Herbs are non-woody plants - usually annual and mostly grown from seed - of
which the flowers, leaves, seeds, stems and roots are used as flavorings in cooking or for
b. Spices. Most of which come from the Tropics - are dried parts of aromatic plant to
include flowers, seeds, leaves, bark, and roots.
11. Salt. (Sodium Chloride.) Salty sensations come from sodium chloride and other salts such
as mono sodium glutamate (MSG) and potassium chloride. This sensation is detected at the front
of the tongue. Salt is an essential nutrient that is very desirable in small quantities. Salt also has
an incredible capacity to absorb water. When placed on food, it can draw water out and in turn,
penetrate into the food where the water once was. Salt, in its various forms is:
a. Rock salt - is mined from deposits on land.
b. Sea salt - is produced by the evaporation of seawater.