handlers, improperly stored or prepared food, rodents, insects, and untreated water can lead to
1. Field Hygiene and Sanitation.
a. Diseases Transmitted by Insects. The effects of diseases transmitted by insects
(arthropods) can range from mild illness to death. Infected soldiers can spread a disease to others
by handling food and through food preparation.
(1) Mosquitoes. Mosquitoes transmit malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and
(2) Lice. Lice transmit typhus fever (epidemic).
(3) Fleas. Fleas transmit typhus fever (murine) and the bubonic plague.
(4) Flies. Flies (particularly houseflies) transmit dysentery and typhoid
(5) Ticks. Ticks transmit spotted fever and lime disease.
(6) Chiggers. Chiggers transmit scrub typhus.
b. Illness Prevention. There are a few general standards, which apply specifically to field
kitchens and how to prevent illness.
(1) Water. All sources of water in the field are considered unsterile. Be sure water is
always correctly disinfected or sterile. Be sure that everyone in your unit has a bottle of iodine
water purification tablets, there are enough chlorination kits, and bulk chlorine is in adequate
supply. Check the chlorine residual of water supplies before drinking and at least daily thereafter.
(2) Waste. During field operations, quantities of liquid and solid waste must be
properly disposed of to keep the camp and bivouac area from quickly becoming a breeding area
for flies, rats, and other vermin. The two basic methods of waste disposal in the field are burning
(3) Latrines. Ensure latrines are located 100 yards or more from food operations and
preferably downhill and on a slope. Latrines should be 30 yards or more down slope from wells,
springs, streams, and other water sources. Check daily to see that latrines have been properly
cleaned (with insecticide when necessary) provide hand washing facilities at all latrines.
2. Equipment Sanitation Procedures. It is essential that you check the working order and
cleanliness of field equipment regularly to ensure the quality of the food, which is prepared.
a. Food Containers. Only insulated food containers with insert should be used. Check
containers and their insert seals to make sure they are intact and in good condition.