e. Allowing foods to remain at bacteria-incubating temperatures.
f. Allowing infected food service workers or personnel with poor personal hygiene to work
in the facility.
g. Failing to reheat cooked foods to temperatures that kill bacteria.
h. Allowing cross-contamination of cooked foods with raw items or raw hazardous food
with raw non-hazardous food (raw chicken or lettuce) either by workers who mishandle foods or
through improperly cleaned equipment.
4. Food Related Hazards. There are three main types of hazards associated with storing and
handling of foods. They are biological, chemical, and physical. The biological hazard is the most
serious in the dining facility.
a. Biological. Bacteria will multiply quickly in the temperature "danger zone" of 45
degrees Fahrenheit to 140 degrees Fahrenheit. Food susceptible to bacterial contamination
should be kept outside this range as much as possible. Cooking food to proper internal
temperature can kill harmful bacteria. See TB MED 530 for further guidance.
b. Chemical. These hazards result from the improper use of additives, poisonous metals,
cleaning chemicals, preservatives, and pesticides. Chemical and metal products should be used
only for their intended purpose. They should be stored properly and away from food storage
areas. Use proper containers for storing and preparation of food.
c. Physical. Faulty equipment can contaminate foods or be a safety hazard. Also, foods
may be physically contaminated (dirt, glass fragments, and wood splinters) when received in the
dining facility. Food service personnel must constantly guard against physical contamination.
Some foodborne illnesses and their causes are shown in the table below.