surface of the eyeball. Hold the eyelid in this manner until tears flow freely. The tears will possibly flush
out the particle.
Glass or Metal. If the foreign particle is glass or metal or it cannot be removed by the techniques
described above, bandage both of the soldier's eyes and get him to a medical treatment facility
immediately. If only one eye is bandaged, the soldier will use his unaffected eye. Since eye movements
are synchronized, use of the unaffected eye may result in movement of the affected eye, thereby
subjecting it to further injury.
Caustic or Irritating Material. If caustic or irritating material, such as acid or ammonia gets into the eye,
immediately flush it with a large volume of water. To flush the right eye turn the head to the right side; to
flush the left eye, turn the head to the left side. This prevents the caustic or irritating material from being
washed into the other eye. The soldier should be immediately evacuated to the nearest medical
treatment facility for care to prevent further damage.
Electrical Hazards. Electrical hazards fall into two categories: shocks and burns.
Electrical Shock. Electrical shock accidents frequently result from contact with a "live" wire and
occasionally occur when a person is struck by lightning. Electrical shock is defined as a sudden
disruption of certain body functions as a result of an electric current flowing through the body between
two points. If a person has come in contact with an electric current, take the following steps:
- Turn off the switch if it is nearby but do not waste time looking for it. Instead use a dry wooden pole,
dry clothing, dry rope, or some other material which will not conduct electricity to remove the person
from the wire. If a pole is not handy, simply drag the soldier off the wire by means of a loop of dry
rope or cloth. Do not touch the wire, apparatus, or the soldier with your bare hands, or you will also
get a shock.
- Administer artificial respiration immediately after freeing the person from the wire or apparatus, as
electric shock causes breathing to cease. Also check the soldier's pulse, since electric shock may
cause his heart to stop. If you do not feel a pulse immediately, administer cardiopulmonary
Electrical Burns. Usually electrical shock is complicated by the simultaneous incidence of internal and/or
external burns. Considerable damage can occur to tissues, nerves, and muscles simply from the heat
generated by the passage of the electric current. Where internal tissues are destroyed, hemorrhaging
can occur, still further complicating the traumatic effects. External burns can also occur by contact with
the electrical source, which may be hot.
Hazardous Communication Procedures. As the supervisor of the petroleum laboratory you will be
expected to obtain and maintain Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) and Hazardous Material Information
System (HMIS) information when available, for all hazardous substances used and stored in the laboratory.
Ensure that fire prevention and safety SOP contain the MSDS and HMIS location for each hazardous
substance used in the laboratory, for reference in case of emergency. These documents should be kept in an
easily accessible and central location. The following types of information can be found in these sheets:
Psychological and Health Effects.
Emergency First-Aid Procedures.
Ingredients / Identity Information.
Special Protective Information.
Physical / Chemical Characteristics.
Fire and Explosion Hazard Data.
Health Hazard Data.
Precautions for Safe Handling and Use.
Additional Health Data.
Safe Handling of Hazardous Waste/Material.
Handling Chemicals. To prevent personal injury and damage to surrounding areas while handling chemicals,
the following measures should be employed:
Always pour acid into water especially sulfuric acid. Never pour water into acid.
Use Pyrex glassware when diluting acids. Ordinary glassware may be broken by the heat generated
from the mixture of acid and water.