cut A fraction obtained by a separation process. Product withdrawn from a pipeline and routed into tankage.
Product withdrawn from the middle of a batch is referred to as a heart cut. In gaging bulk contact with the gaging
instrument. The cut shows the level of the product.
Defense Energy Fuel Supply Center (DESC) An activity under the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) with
responsibility as the integrated materiel manager (IMM) for wholesale bulk petroleum products until their delivery
to the point of sale. This responsibility includes contract administration in oversea areas.
density Specific weight or mass of a substance per unit volume (pounds per cubic foot or gallon or grams per
cubic centimeter). Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of any volume of a substance to the mass of an equal
volume of some standard substance (water in the case of liquids and hydrogen or air in the case of gases) at 40,
Celsius (104, Fahrenheit). In POL density is mass per unit volume at a specified temperature (15C). Density is
a fundamental property that can be used in conjunction with other properties to characterize both the light and
heavy fraction of petroleum and petroleum products.
deterioration Any undesirable chemical or physical change that takes place in a product during storage or use.
Some of the more common forms of deterioration are weathering, gum formation, weakening of additives, and
change in color.
of a liquid and its subsequent condensation
in a different chamber.
to the separation of one group of petroleum constituents from another by means of volatilization in some form of
closed apparatus, such as a still, by the aid of heat. ASTM distillation: Any distillation made according to an
ASTM distillation procedure, especially a distillation test made on such products as gasoline, jet or turbine fuels,
and kerosene to determine the initial and final boiling points and the boiling range.
flash point The lowest temperature at which a liquid petroleum product gives off vapor in sufficient
concentration to ignite (that is, flash) on application of a flame under specified conditions.
foaming The formation of froth or foam on lubricating oils or other oils as a result of aeration or release of gas
dissolved in the oil. Foaming characteristics of lubricating oils are determined by ASTM Method D 892.
Fuel System Icing Inhibitor (FSII) An agent to be used only as an anti-icing additive for jet turbine engine fuels.
gum Varnish-like, tacky, noncombustible insoluble deposits formed during the deterioration
of petroleum and its
products, particularly gasoline. The amount of gummy material in gasoline is known as its gum content, which is
determined by ASTM Methods D 381 and D 873.
identification tests Selected tests applied to a sample to identify quickly the type or grade of material
represented or to determine that the quality has not been altered by time or handling.
inhibitor A substance added in small amounts to a petroleum product to prevent or retard undesirable chemical
changes from taking place in the product or in the condition of the equipment in which the product is used. The
essential function of inhibitors is to prevent or retard oxidation or corrosion.
innage The height or volume of liquid in a storage tank as measured or gaged from the bottom of the tank to the
top of the liquid.
light ends The most volatile portions
of a carbon and hydrogen mixture, the low boiling components that boil off
first in distillation. Opposite of heavy ends.
micron One micron is a thousandth part of one millimeter (approximately 25,400 microns equals I-inch). The
average human hair is about 100 microns in diameter.
off-specification product A product which fails to meet one or more of the physical, chemical, or performance
requirements of the specification.
olefin One of a major series of hydrocarbons that appear chiefly in refinery operations. They have the
general formula of naphthenes and the chain structures of paraffin, but they are unsaturated. Molecular structure
and nomenclature correspond to paraffin having the same amount of carbon. Ethylene, or ethene, is the lowest,
member of the olefins, and the series is sometimes called the ethylene series.
Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) The measure of pressure exerted by a product on the interior of a special container
due to its tendency to vaporize.
ullage The amount a tank or container lacks of being full.
upgrade A grade that slopes upward in the direction of pipeline flow. To change service from a dark or heavy
product to a light or volatile product; refers to the nature of a product stored in a tank or transported in a tanker,
tank car, or tank truck. To blend a higher grade gasoline interface into tankage containing a lower grade gasoline.
volume correction The correction of measured quantity of product, determined by gaging at observed
temperature and gravity and reference to a gage table, to net quantity of product at 60 Fahrenheit (15.6Celsius)
after deducting bottom water and sediment.