Section II Terms
additive An agent used for improving existing characteristics or for imparting new characteristics to certain
American Petroleum Institute (API) The institute represents and is supported by the petroleum industry. It
standardizes the tools and equipment used by the industry and promotes the advancement of research in the
Aqua-Glo test A test to detect water in fuel supplies.
appearance Refers to the visual examination of fuels. The terms used to describe appearance are clear and
bright, hazy and cloudy.
aviation fuels (AVFUELS) Those refined petroleum products specifically formulated and blended for use in
aircraft engines, both jet engines and piston (reciprocating) engines. AVGAS (below) is an aviation fuel.
aviation gasoline (AVGAS) A hydrocarbon fuel for use in reciprocating piston-type aircraft engines. AVGAS is
characterized by high vapor pressure and distillation range and high tetraethyI lead content. It is procured by
the military under specification MIL-G-5572.
bonding Electrically connecting units
of containers before operations begin
in order equalize any static potential
that might exist and to provide a continuous path for any static potential that might be generated after
operations begin. (See Grounding.)
bottom loading Refers to the loading of a railway tank car or tank vehicle through the bottom outlet. Bottom
loading reduces loss through vapor formation.
burner fuel oil
A fuel oil used under boilers and
to generate power
or heat. Under Federal
Specification (FS) W-F-815, it is produced in six grades: FS No. 1, FS No. 2, FS No. 4, FS No. 5 (Light) FS
No. 5 (Heavy), and FS No. 6. Under specification MIL-F-859, one grade, Navy special, is produced.
gases, chemical products, coolants, deicing and antifreeze compounds, together with Components and
additives of such products and coal.
Class III A (Air) Petroleum and chemical products used in support of aircraft.
Class III W (Ground) Petroleum and chemical products and solid fuels used in support of ground and marine
clear and bright Clear is the absence of visible solids, a cloud, a haze, an emulsion, or free water in the product.
Bright is the sparkle of clean, dry product in transmitted light.
compression ignition Ignition in a diesel engine, in which the heat of compression ignites the fuel, in contrast to
the spark ignition in a gasoline engine.
contaminant A foreign substance in a product.
contaminated product A product in which one or more grades or types of products have been inadvertently
mixed, or a product containing foreign matter, such as dust, dirt, rust, water, or emulsions.
corrosion Rusting; a gradual eating away or oxidation ,such as the action of moist air on steel and the more
rapid chemical action of acid on metal or steel.
flash point The lowest temperature at which a liquid petroleum product gives off vapor in sufficient
concentration to ignite (that is, flash) on application of a flame under specified conditions.