such a source must be used, advice as to treatment should be obtained from the preventive medicine
branch. Consideration should be given to the following:
(1) Phenolic compounds. Acid mine waste and industrial waste of which coal and wood
distillation form a large part are a principal source of phenolic input to water sources. Very minute
quantities of phenols will impart objectionable medicinal or phenolic tastes to water which are
intensified by chlorination.
(2) Chromates and cyanides. Chromates, or hexavalent chromium, and sodium cyanide are
widely used in electroplating and other electrolytic operations. The concentration and composition of
the poisonous wastewaters vary widely.
(3) Other contaminates. Other typical industrial wastes are arsenates, ammoni cresols,
sulfides, oil field brines, coalmine drainage, and residues of iron and copper smelting fertilizer runoff
such as Lindane. Lindane is a widely used agricultural insecticide. It enters water sources from aerial
spraying, runoff, or direct application for mosquito control. Wells may be contaminated with Lindane
when the chemical is spilled around the well during mixing operations or from prolonged exposure to
repeated applications in surrounding areas. When ingested in small doses, Lindane can cause dizziness,
headaches, nausea, vomiting or tremors. At higher doses, severe seizures, respiratory failure,
cardiovascular collapse, or death may occur.
d. Radiological Contamination. Radiological elements may appear in water supplies as a result
of naturally occurring contamination. Radioactive elements may also enter water from indiscriminate
disposal of hospital or industrial nuclear waste as well as a result of leakage from reactors. These are all
in addition to the deliberate effect of nuclear weapons directed at soldiers engaged in combat on the
active NBC battlefield.
e. Chemical Agent Contamination. Chemical agents have been used during wartime. Their
purpose is to incapacitate or kill enemy soldiers. Types of agents that can contaminate a water source or
supply are as follows: hydrogen cyanide, lewisite, mustard, and various nerve agents.
5. Water Quality Surveillance. Commanders, staff planners, and officers responsible for water units
must ensure that an adequate water quality surveillance program exists and is enforced. The type of
quality surveillance measures needed must be determined early and included in the water portion of the
logistics annex of the OPLAN. Clear and concise descriptions of the quality surveillance procedures
should also be given in the SOP for the water unit. Coordination with the Preventive Medicine Branch
must be made in a timely manner to ensure that the preventive medicine inspector analyses the water
samples for certification of potability.
a. Water Quality Testing. Water quality testing has two major areas of concern as it relates to
the daily operation of a water point. The first is testing the quality of the raw water source and
determining how it affects the operation of the water purification equipment and use of treatment
chemicals. The second is testing the quality of the product water to ensure that it meets the short/long
term field water quality standards for consumption. Chemical analysis and