cooking by baking. Use a wire basket to lower the food into the fat and to remove the food when
it is done. Do not overfill the wire basket because loose breading will fall into the fat. Always
lower a filled basket into the fat slowly to prevent chilling the fat. If the fat is too hot, the
outside of the food will scorch and the food will not cook through. If the fat is not hot enough,
the outside of the food will become greasy and unpalatable even though the item may be cooked.
Cooking fats break down for a variety of reasons: Sometimes the fat is allowed to get too hot
during cooking; sometimes the fat is used to cook fatty foods such as bacon; and sometimes
breading materials or food particles are allowed to accumulate in the fat. (Fat should be filtered
after each meal.) Also, sometimes fat is allowed to get too old before it is replaced.
f. Panfrying. Panfry meat by cooking it slowly and uncovered on top of the range. Use
only enough fat to keep the meat from sticking or burning. Slice meat thinly for frying. Cook it
at a moderate temperature and turn it occasionally. Some recipes call for the meat to be rolled in
seasoned flour before frying.
g. Cooking Meat by Moist Heat. Simmering is cooking in a liquid at a temperature just
below the boiling point. Meat cooked by moist heat is simmered, not boiled. Boiling toughens
meat and destroys its flavor, food value, and shape. This method is used to cook large, non-
browned pieces of meat such as corned beef.
h. Braising. To braise meat, first brown it either in its own fat or in a small amount of
added fat. Then simmer it in a small amount of additional liquid. The recipe may or may not
call for the meat to be rolled in seasoned flour before browning. Meat can be braised on top of
the range, in the oven, in a tilting fry pan, or in a steam-jacketed kettle. After adding a small
amount of liquid, cover the pan to keep in the moisture. Braised liver is an example of braised
i. Stewing. For stewing, meat is cut into small, uniform pieces. The recipe specifies if the
meat is to be browned before adding the liquid. Browned meat may or may not have to be rolled
in seasoned flour. More liquid is required for stewing than for braising. Cover the meat, and
simmer it on top of the range or in a steam-jacketed kettle. After the meat is tender, add diced or
sliced raw vegetables, if required.
j. Preparing Dehydrated Meat. Dehydrated meat includes uncooked beef patties, diced
beef, beefsteaks, and pork chops. You can rehydrate meat ahead of cooking time and keep it in
the refrigerator, or you can cook it immediately after rehydration. Rehydration is done following
the manufacturer's instructions. The temperature of the water used and the time required for
rehydration varies with each product. After the meat has been rehydrated, it is drained and
handled as fresh meat to prevent spoilage.
k. Serving Poultry. The two main types of poultry served in dining facilities are chicken
and turkey. Broiler-fryer chickens are received frozen, either in whole or cut-up condition.
Turkeys are received frozen, in either whole (ready to cook) or boneless condition. The whole,
ready-to-cook turkey has the giblets (liver, heart, and gizzard) and neck wrapped in the cavity of
the carcass. Boneless turkeys are received in cooked, molded, encased, or raw-tied and netted.
Other types of poultry that are served infrequently include duck and Cornish hens.