PART F - MANIFOLD DESIGN FACTORS
The following factors are affected by the theater support requirements:
Number and quantity of products - The number of and quantity of
products depends on theater needs (i.e., troops, equipment, etc.).
Number of tanks - The number of tanks depends on the quantity and type
of product stored and the facility size (a minimum of two tanks per
product is preferred).
Number of incoming lines - The number of incoming lines entering the
facility is determined by the supporting locations.
Number of outgoing lines - The number of lines leaving the facility is
determined by the locations supported.
Future expansion - Future expansion is based on the expansion of the
theater and an increase in corresponding support requirements.
Location - The location of a facility is given with the manifold
centrally located within it.
Layout - The layout requires that the manifold is located at the low
point near the center of the tank farm piping network. The minimum
distance to any tank should be 250 feet.
Construction - The manifold consists of API standard pipe sections and
plug valves. The API pipe will accommodate higher pressures
associated with the sharp angles and close proximity to the fuel
source. Plug valves provide control in switching products as they
require only a 1/4-turn to open or close the valve.
Manifold design - A manifold is designed to support the facility in
which it is located. The basic manifold used in a facility is called
a switching manifold which is an assembly of pipe, fittings, and
valves used for controlling the flow of petroleum products into, out
of, and within, a tank farm complex. The manifold is located at the
lowest point within the facility to assure positive suction to the
transfer/feeder pumps. The manifold connects a number of tanks with
incoming and outgoing lines as well as pumps used in transferring
A single tank connected to a pipeline does not
provide the flexibility to accomplish more than a single function.
Multiple tanks connected to a pipeline, even while providing increased
capacity, can only perform a single function. The manifold system
permits simultaneous receipt and delivery of petroleum products by the
facility. By adding pipe, fittings, and valves, control of the
product to complete multiple tasks can be accomplished. Products can
be received into one tank while issues can continue simultaneously.
Manifold Identification Markings - An identification system is
essential for control within a facility. The facility commander will
establish the identification system where one is not established or if
a current system needs changing. Identification systems should be
kept simple. The system should identify each tank, pump, line, and
valve. A schematic of the facility tanks, pumps, lines, and valves
identifying each needs to be available with the facility for
reference. Schematic and facility markings are suggested as a method
for identification of the system. Whatever method is utilized, the