Planning. The planning for a water supply site begins with mission guidance from your tactical commander. This
guidance includes the total daily water requirements (in gallons), as well as intelligence reports, aerial photos, and
maps of the area.
The reconnaissance team leader will complete entries on a DA Form 1712-R as the information is gathered. After
testing raw water for chemical agents, total dissolved solids, turbidity, pH/temperature, and color, he will verify
that raw water meets minimum requirements set in TB MED 577.
Total Dissolved Solids. The amount of dissolved solids has various effects on purification operations depending
on the type and concentration of the constituent. The greater the amount of TDSR the more effect it will have on
production rates, product quality, RO cleaning and membrane fowling. Product water from sources with TDS
readings above 35,000 mg/L will usually need to be recycled until it meets the water quality standards for
consumption. Plan for this to diminish your production rate.
pH/Temperature. pH has an impact on membrane performance and the effectiveness of chemicals. A high pH
can cause membrane fowling and an increase in chemical requirements. An efficient coagulation and flocculation
process depends on the optimum pH reading. Chemical effectiveness and the chemical reaction times will be
effected when treating cold water from water sources. The lower the temperature, the more the productivity
decreases. Plan for more chemical usage and diminished production rates. Water from sources with temperatures
over 100 F can cause adverse effects on RO elements.
Quantity. The Quantity block lists the amount of water available for immediate use. If the water source is a
stream or creek, you must determine if there is enough water flowing to meet the capacity of the raw water pump
of the equipment and determine how many purification units can produce from this site. When the source is a
pond or lake, consider the volume of water contained. Estimating the amount of water impounded in the source is
very difficult. If the source is small and does not have a tributary feeding into it, the possibility of completely
draining it must be considered.
NOTE: Possible sources of pollution are garbage dumps, sewage plants, and industrial plants. They cause
insurmountable problems with the treating of the water. Therefore, when they are present, choose a water site as
far upstream as possible.
Site Conditions. After reviewing the information in the quality-quantity block, consider other factors. In addition
to having cover and concealment, the site should be a safe distance from aerial targets. Security personnel must
be planned to provide perimeter defense. Commander must take action to provide security to the water points. A
lack of security could result in a complete loss of the water point. The enemy could contaminate the storage and
distribution facilities, thus disabling or killing those who consume the water.