Scope. This test method covers the visual determination of the color of a wide variety of petroleum products
such as lubricating oils, heating oils, diesel fuels oils, automotive gasoline and aviation gasoline.
Summary of Test. A liquid sample is placed in a clear glass container and the visual color observed.
Significance of Test. Visual color of a petroleum product is used for quick identification of a product. A change
Clear and Bright Test (Visual).
Scope. This method covers a pass/fail procedure for determining the presence of free water and solid
Summary of Test. A sample of fuel is swirled in a clean glass jar and examined for visual sediment or water
drops below the vortex formed by swirling. A visual inspection for clarity is also performed.
Significance. The procedure provides
a rapid but nonquantitative method
to check for contamination
Distillation (ASTM D-86).
Scope. This method covers the distillation of motor gasoline, aviation gasoline, aviation turbine fuels, special
boiling point spirits, naphtha, white spirit, kerosene, gas oils, distillate fuel oils, and similar petroleum products.
Summary of Method. A 100 milliliter (ml) sample is distilled under prescribed conditions which are appropriate
to its nature. Systematic observations of thermometer readings and volumes of condensate are made, and from
these data, the results of the test are calculated and reported.
Significance of Test. Distillation (volatility) characteristics of petroleum products are indicative of performance
in their intended applications. Petroleum product specifications generally include distillation limits to assure
products of suitable volatility performance. The empirical results obtained by use of this distillation method have
been found to correlate with automotive equipment performance factors and with other characteristics of
petroleum products related to volatility.
Initial Boiling Point. The thermometer reading that is observed at the instant that the first drop of
condensate falls from the lower end of the condenser tube.
End Point or Final Boiling Point. The maximum thermometer reading obtained during the test. This
usually occurs after the evaporation of all liquid from the bottom of the flask.
Percent Recovered. The volume in milliliters of condensate observed in the receiving graduate, in
connection with a simultaneous thermometer reading.
Percent Recovery. The maximum percent recovered.
Percent Loss. 100 minus the total percent recovery.
Percent Residue. The volume in milliliters of residue.
Procedure. IAW with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) method D-86, Distillation of
Reid Vapor Pressure (ASTM D-323).
Scope. This test method covers a determination of vapor pressure of gasoline. It is also applicable to other
volatile petroleum products except liquefied petroleum gases and oxygenated fuels.
Summary of Method. The gasoline chamber of the vapor pressure apparatus is filled with the chilled sample
and connected to the air bath at 100 degrees Fahrenheit. The apparatus is immersed in a bath at 100 degrees
Fahrenheit and is shaken periodically until a constant pressure is observed on the gage attached to the
apparatus. The gage reading, suitably corrected, is reported as the Reid Vapor Pressure.
Significance of Test. RVP is used to predict the vapor locking tendencies of the fuel in a vehicle's fuel system.
Controlled in some areas to limit air pollution by evaporating hydrocarbons while dispensing.
Flash and Fire Point (ASTM D-93, D-92 ).
Scope. These methods cover flash point of petroleum products at all ranges.
Summary of Method. The test cup is filled to a specified level with the sample. The temperature of the sample
is increased rapidly at first and then at a slow constant rate as the flash point is approached. At specified
intervals a small test flame is passed across the cup. The lowest temperature at which application of the flame
causes the vapors above to ignite, but not burn continuously, is taken as the flash point.