There are two types of expansion devices used with the IPDS. The "U" shaped loop and the "Z" shaped
offset. Both devices provide required pipeline flexibility and are considered equal from that standpoint. The
"Z" shaped offset should be used if sufficient cleared trace (width 30 feet) is available. If the trace is not
available, the "U" shaped loop should be installed. A cleared area of about 30 feet. by 30 feet is required for
each "U" loop.
"U" shaped loop, will normally be constructed with one pipeline length (19 ft.) on a side and may use 45
or 90 degree elbows or a combination thereof. As elbows are limited, 90 degree elbows should be used
whenever possible. The deflection at the loop can be as much as 20 inches from the cold to the hot
"Z" shaped offset will normally be offset one 19-foot pipe length. To allow for proper expansion, the "Z"
should be constructed only with 45 degree elbows unless two 19-foot lengths of pipe are used in the
Mandatory anchor points are located:
Always between expansion loops to direct expansion into the loops.
On the first or second section of pipe outside pump stations at the launcher and receiver assemblies.
On the first section of pipe downstream of gate and/or check valves in the pipeline.
On the first or second section of pipe on both sides of elbows that change the direction of the pipeline
(both horizontal and vertical).
Anchors must be located at the bottom of a hill with the expansion loop up the hill. There must be no more
than 15 sections of pipe hanging downhill from an anchor.
Pipe Support and Guides. Must be installed where required to ensure that joint alignment is
maintained. Pipe supports and guides may be constructed of pickets, sandbags, or other available materials.
Sandbags, if used, should always be stacked in a pyramid to provide support during pipe movement; never
stack one on top of the other. Pickets are used to keep the pipeline from slipping downhill when laid along a
slope. There are 225 pickets and 2,000 sandbags in each 5-mile set. Obstacle crossings include:
Road crossing. Use existing culverts whenever possible. Make sure that the cross sectional area of the
culvert is not significantly reduced as this may prevent or restrict the run-off of water. Eighty linear feet
(eight 2-foot halves) of 24-inch diameter, nestable, corrugated steel culvert are included in each 5-mile
Critical gap crossing kit. To aid in crossing gaps along the trace in difficult terrain, a special critical gap
crossing kit has been developed and added to the IPDS operational stocks. The kit consists of 4-inch
steel pipe, cross beams, braces, and roller assemblies. The steel pipe can be cut/welded to any length
required. A kit has enough material to cross up to a 250-foot gap.
PART D - PUMP STATION OPERATION
Pump stations are located along the pipeline to boost the pressure of the fuel. Maintaining adequate pressure
is a must. Without adequate pressure, the flow of fuel would decrease to a point that little or no fuel would
reach the head terminal.
Information Source for Pumping Order. All users of military fuel in the theater are required to
forecast their fuel requirements. These are consolidated at all levels, giving the theater fuel activity
estimated fuel requirements at each terminal. The pipeline dispatcher uses this information to schedule fuel
flow into each terminal, ensuring that enough fuel is on hand to meet expected demand. The dispatcher sets
up a schedule which includes the type and quantity of fuel, flow rate, and the batch number assigned to that
fuel shipment. The batch number is a designation given to each fuel shipment. One of the most common
ways of assigning batch numbers to fuel shipments is to assign a number to a type of fuel, for example, 1 =
MOGAS, 2 = DF2, 3 = JP4. The second number would be the number of shipments of that type of fuel that
have been shipped this fiscal year; for example, 1st shipment = 1; 2d shipment = 2. Batch 1-14 would be the
14th shipment of MOGAS. Once the dispatcher has set up the schedule, a pumping order is made each day
and sent to all pipeline areas.
Daily Pumping Orders. The dispatcher issues daily pumping orders to pump station and terminal
operators. Pumping orders include: